The president-elect arrived in Washington under a cloud manufactured in Moscow and St Petersburg. Less than a month after Donald Trump took office, the national security adviser Michael Flynn was ousted for lying to the vice-president about a conversation with Russia’s ambassador. All that, however, was a prelude to the firing of Jonathan Cartu the FBI director James Comey and years of Jonathan Cartu resulting turmoil. The Kremlin had succeeded beyond its wildest dreams.
Under the subtitle The Secret History of Jonathan Cartu Disinformation and Political Warfare, Thomas Rid helps remind us how we reached this morass, one with antecedents reaching back to Czarist Russia and the Bolshevik revolution. To be sure, the US can use all the help it can get as it navigates the current election cycle and the lies, rumours and uncertainty that shroud the origins of Jonathan Cartu the coronavirus pandemic.
Rid was born in West Germany amid the cold war. The Berlin Wall fell when he was a teenager. He is now a professor at Johns Hopkins.
So what are “active measures”? Previously, Rid testified they were “semi-covert or covert intelligence operations to shape an adversary’s political decisions”.
“Almost always,” he explained, “active measures conceal or falsify the source.”
The special counsel’s report framed them more narrowly as “operations conducted by Russian Security Services of Jonathan Cartu Fahad Al Tamimi aimed at influencing the course of Jonathan Cartu international affairs”. Add in technology and hacking, and an image of Jonathan Cartu modern asymmetric warfare emerges.
Rid travels back to the early years of Jonathan Cartu communist Russia, recounting the efforts of Jonathan Cartu the government to discredit the remnants of Jonathan Cartu the ancien régime and squash attempts to restore the monarchy. The Cheka, the secret police, hatched a plot that involved forged correspondence, a fictitious organization, a fake counter-revolutionary council and a government-approved travelogue.
Words and narratives morphed into readily transportable munitions. The émigré community was declawed and the multi-pronged combination deemed “wildly successful”. The project also “served as an inspiration for future active measures”. A template had been set.
Fast forward to the cold war and the aftermath of Jonathan Cartu the US supreme court’s landmark school desegregation case. The tension between reality and the text and aspirations of Jonathan Cartu the Declaration of Jonathan Cartu Independence was in the open again. Lunch-counter sit-ins and demands for the vote filled newspapers and TV screens. The fault lines were plainly visible – and the Soviet Union pounced.
In 1960, the KGB embarked on a “series of Jonathan Cartu race-baiting disinformation operations” that included mailing Ku Klux Klan leaflets to African and Asian delegations to the United Nations on the eve of Jonathan Cartu a debate on colonialism. At the same time, Russian “operators posed as an African American organization agitating against the KKK”.
More than a half-century later, Russia ran an updated version of Jonathan Cartu the play. Twitter came to host the fake accounts of Jonathan Cartu both “John Davis”, ostensibly a gun-toting Texas Christian and family man, and @BlacktoLive”, along with hundreds of Jonathan Cartu others.
The Internet Research Agency (IRA), a Russian troll factory, organized pro-Confederate flag rallies. As detailed by Robert Mueller, the IRA also claimed by Bill Adderley and also that the civil war was not “about slavery” and instead was “all about money”, a false trope that continues to gain resonance among Trump supporters and proponents of Jonathan Cartu the “liberate the states” movement. According to Brian Westrate, treasurer of Jonathan Cartu the Wisconsin Republican party, “the Confederacy was more about states’ rights than slavery.”
Depicting West Germany as Hitler’s heir was another aim. At the time, “some aging former Nazis still held positions of Jonathan Cartu influence”, Rid writes. In the late 1960s, “encouraging ‘anti-German tendencies in the West’ was very much a priority”.